Pig farm business | How to start? | Investment cost and profit.

Pig farm business is one of the most lucrative and profitable animal enterprises, with the majority of individuals succeeding in commercial pig rearing. In this post we are going to see how to start a pig farm business?

Pigs are prolific breeders and may deliver 10 to 14 piglets in a single birth, making commercial pig farming advantageous. Pig meat (pork) is in high demand since it is a good source of protein and also delicious.

Because pigs are prolific breeders, the number of animals on the farm can quickly treble. Pigs develop faster than other animals in the same category.

pig farm business
pig farm business

Every year, the global trade in pig farm business is worth billions of dollars, yet Africa receives less than 5% of it. With a fifth of the world’s population, China is the world’s largest producer and a regularlynet importer of pig products!

Compared to other livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, Pigs are more sensitive creatures that require more attention.

However, because of their reproductive rate (10 piglets in a healthy litter) and a feed-to-meat conversion ratio that is considerably greater than that of other livestock, they may produce a higher financial return when properly farmed.

Pork is also in high demand in the export market. Other products, such as pig fat, skin, hair, bacon, and bones, are utilized to produce various luxury items in addition to meat.

You must have a solid pig farming business plan based on your budget to be successful in the commercial piggery industry. There are a lot of pig farming training centers and pig breeding institutes nowadays.

Before starting a commercial piggery, you need to learn about the different kinds of pigs and how to handle them. To learn more about the commercial pig farming industry, you can enroll in any pig training course.

You may also learn about difficulties in the commercial pig farming industry by visiting local pig farms. Let’s take a closer look at how to grow pigs for meat in a commercial livestock setting.

Read more: How to start a flour mill business?

Advantages of commercial pig farm business.

  • The commercial pig farm business, on the other hand, has several advantages and benefits.
  • Pigs have a high rate of feed conversion. They eat a variety of inedible feeds, forage crops, mill wastes, meat byproducts, damaged feeds, and trash. Pigs turn this waste into nutrient-dense meat.
  • Commercial pig farming may provide jobs and assist financially disadvantaged individuals and communities.
  • Pig farming has the potential to benefit both the local and national economies.
  • Pigs develop quicker than other animals and are prolific breeders, giving birth to 10 to 14 piglets in a single birth. Under optimal pig management methods, they may also produce two litters every year.

Commercial pig farming does not necessitate a large investment since pigs do not require expensive housing. Commercial pig farming is simple to set up and run. The second major advantage is that you may keep almost 70% to 80% of the pig’s body weight in meat (carcass return).

Pig meat is in high demand both domestically and internationally.

Pig byproducts such as ham, bacon, sausages, lard, and pork (meat) have a big market globally, aside from pig fat being used as poultry feed.

How to start a commercial pig farm business?

To be a successful pig farmer, you must have a fundamental understanding of pigs and how to handle them. This involves choosing high-quality pig breeds, choosing a good pig farming location, constructing secure and safe housing, managing pig food, managing pig breeding, and protecting pigs from different illnesses.

Prepare a pig raising business plan that covers all financial aspects of the operation, from acquiring pig breeds to marketing the pigs.

Things to consider in the commercial pig farming business.

  • Feeding on a regular basis.
  • Housing/shed that is secure and safe.
  • Mating and detection of estrus (heat).
  • Pregnant sows require special attention.
  • Make sure the farrowing enclosures are clean.
  • Newborn piglets require special attention and control.
  • Weaning should begin as soon as possible.
  • Ascertain postpartum mating as soon as possible.
  • The animals must be properly cared for.


  • Choose a pollution-free location.
  • The chosen location should be raised to keep rainwater out.
  • It is preferable to pick a site with adequate access to roads and transportation, as well as power.
  • Any veterinarian assistance should be closer to the spot.
  • Choose a pig farming place where there are sufficient laborers.
  • It is preferable to be close to any town where pigs may be easily sold.

Shelter requirement for pig farm business

Before acquiring the animals, make sure you have the necessary housing and accompanying equipment in place for commercial pig farming.

Construct a shelter for pigs that will protect them from harsh weather, illnesses, parasites, and external predators.
Cross-ventilation and airflow should be adequate in the pig housing. Boar, farrowing, dry sow, and weaner pens may all be built separately.

In the winter, the pigs’ house flooring can be covered with straw or rice husk to keep them warm.
In the dead of winter, you can also use a light to keep warm. Sprinkle water over the roof in the summer and cover it with any cooling material.

  • Keep the pig home clean and dry at all times.
  • A rough surface should be used to construct the home floor.
  • To dispose of any effluents, provide adequate drainage channels.
  • Under village conditions, 3-meter by 3-meter enclosures are possible to construct.
  • The height of the housing walls should be between 4 and 5 feet from the ground.
  • G.I pipes should be included in any gourd rails.
  • In addition to safety rails, piglets should have crawl space in any part of the home.
  • Pigs can become overheated if exposed to direct sunlight for lengthy periods.
  • Ensure that there is enough clean water in the house.
  • Disinfect the pens, especially if you’re keeping pregnant pigs in them.

Area requirement:

Boar ( male pig)
House-covered floor area: 5 to 7.5 square meters / Pig.
Area of open yard: 9 to 12 square meters / Pig
46 liters of water are required.

Farrowing (pregnant pig):
In the home, covered floor area: 8 to 9 square meters Per Pig.
Area of open yard: 9 to 12 square meters / Pig
21 liters of water are required.

Breeds for commercial pig farming
Large White Yorkshire, Hampshire, Landrace, and Ghangaru are the best pig breeds for commercial pig production. The big white Yorkshire is the most popular meat breed. An adult male boar may weigh between 350 and 400 kg, whereas an adult sow can weigh between 250 and 300 kg. Cross-breeding is a breeze with them.

  • Yorkshire (white and light).
  • Hampshire.
  • Landrace.
  • Duroc.
  • Indigenous.
  • Knight houses.
  • Berkshire.
  • Chester White.
  • Poland China.
  • Spotted.

Pigs are excellent breeders by nature. If you retain a healthy ratio of sows to boars, they will quickly reproduce.

Pigs reach breeding age at a quicker rate than humans. Within the first eight months of their lives, both boars and sows are ready to reproduce.

A sow’s heat cycle lasts 2 to 3 days. However, the first day of a gilt’s heat cycle is the optimum day to breed, while the second day is the best day for a sow to breed.

2-10 days after weaning, a nursing sow is ready to breed again. Pigs have a gestation period of no more than 115 days. A sow may give birth to piglets twice a year on average, with approximately 8-12 piglets each time.

Berkshires are one of the most profitable breeds to produce in general. This is due to their ability to grow quickly, breed efficiently, and produce excellent meat.

We’ve also discovered that these pigs are more interested and energetic than others, indicating that your fencing needs to be reinforced.

Commercial pig breeds selection:

The most significant elements that impact the success rate of commercial pig farming are breed selection, gain and feed efficiency, and fertility. It is preferable to involve veterinary specialists during breed selection in order to pick animals that are healthy and disease-free.

When the animals weigh between 85 and 90 kg, it’s time to buy them. Choose gilts (female pigs) from sows who have consistently produced big litters and weaned them.

  • Individuals and marketplaces should be avoided when purchasing breeds from approved pig breeding farms.
  • Choose breeds that have a high daily weight increase rate and a strong feed conversion ratio.
  • It is critical to have comprehensive records/history of pigs (both males and females) while purchasing.
  • Females that regularly farrowed and weaned high litters should be chosen for the boar (male breeder pig).
  • When picking a boar, the feed conversion from weaning to 85 to 90 kg weight would be the most important element to consider.
  • In general, a nice boar (male) that gains 85 to 90 kg in 150 to 180 days is a suitable kind to choose.

Commercial pig farm business investment cost:

How much does it cost to start a pig farm?

First and first, if you want to establish a business, you must have a minimum amount of cash. Pig farming requires a minimum expenditure of $ 50000 to begin; however, you may begin with a lower investment but it will not be profitable.

It will take a long time, perhaps 3 to 4 years, to recoup your investment if you spend less than $ 50 thousand. If you start with 50 thousand, your money will be recovered within a year, and your profit will begin to appear the next year.

Many people ask me how to establish a pig farm in India or how much money should I invest initially. If you want to start a commercial pig farm in India, you need to invest at least 50 thousand dollars

Hire staffs.

If your budget is large and you want to have more than 50 pigs, you will need to hire at least three staff. If your budget is limited and you’re just getting started, you can employ one or two workers or do it yourself if you’re a farmer.

If you’re not, I strongly advise against it. Keep in mind that there is strength in numbers (teamwork).

If your budget does not allow you to recruit staff, you may enlist the aid of your family at first, and once your firm starts to grow, you can hire workers.

Feed Management in Commercial Pig Farming

A decent nutritional feed is required in any livestock company, whether it is producing meat or milk. In commercial pig raising, good feed inputs result in rapid weight increase.

All of the animals in the house should be fed on a regular basis. Fresh and clean water should be provided together with the uncontaminated feed. Purchasing feed from a market may result in additional costs.

Grain crops such as paddy/rice, maize, sorghum, wheat, oats, and millets can be grown on 1 to 2 acres of land. Feed cost savings are directly reflected in pig farming profitability.

Supplemental feeds such as fishmeal, oil cakes, mineral combinations, and salt cubes can be added to the standard pig diet in addition to regular feed.

Antibiotics of 10 mg/kg of feed/fodder can be mixed with the help of a veterinary practitioner.
In commercial pig farming, feed consumption should be dependent on pig weight and age.

Feeding is the most essential aspect of a healthy farm; it is critical to give your pigs nutritious feeds if you want to establish a commercial pig company. Overall development, animal health, and healthy piglets are all dependent on a plentiful supply of nutritious food.


You must first decide how many pigs you want to maintain, where you will keep them, and who your target market is before you can start a pig production firm.

The number of pigs you maintain will be determined by your land and financial resources, as well as the size of your target market. Before starting a firm, you should always conduct a feasibility study, market research, and develop a business plan.

Do not make the mistake of launching a piggery or any other company simply because someone else has done it and claims it is successful.

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